Here is another helpful summary, relevant to those making and using on-line instructional videos or lectures. There are several underlining principles of using multimedia resources, based on theories of how the human brain processes a combination of verbal and visual information: 1)It is better to provide explanations in two forms of information rather than one e.g. a film with corresponding verbal explanation is better than just a visual aid; 2) Multimedia explanations should include words in verbal rather than written form e.g. try watching a subtitled film; 3) Coherent summary highlighting key words/visuals is better than detailed explanations.
All common sense really, but neatly put together.
Mayer, R. And Moreno, R. A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning– pls contact me for a full reference.
Here is the summary of a study comparing student satisfaction and formal test results after using four different types of instruction: traditional classroom, on-line instruction without video, on-line instruction with video, and on-line instruction with interactive video (video organised in small chunks that are well-indexed, and easily manipulated). All groups that used on-line instruction reported higher satisfaction than the group with traditional classroom instruction. The students using on-line instruction without video and those using on-line instruction with linear video scored equal satisfaction. The interactive video group reported higher satisfaction. The test scores (learning outcome) of the group using the interactive video were higher than those of the other three groups.
Does this justify the time investment that making interactive videos require?
(Zang et al, (2006), ‘Instructional video in e-learning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness’, Information & Management vol. 43: 15–27, [Available on-line: www.sciencedirect.com]
Staff views. LCF technical staff focus group reviewed a number of videos (available from the LCF BlackBoard, PROCESSARTS, and an on-line video produced by Derby University) looking at their reuse values. All videos were focused on basic sewing machine preparation and use, but differed in production style. Several initial recommendations emerged:
– introduce a graphic overlay highlighting key points on the screen where applicable;
– prepare good scripts, including some contextual information;
– consider voiceover (to prevent the viewer from being distracted by the presenter) .